A simple software to control the Si5351A clock generator chip

A fellow radio amateur who visited my website gave me a hint for a very cheap module that is capable of generating rf sginals up to 200 MHz. It is the well-known Si5351A clock generator chip made by Silicon Labs (datasheet).It is available by ADAFRUIT mounted to a breakout board using 0.1″ conventional spacing. The chip itself is very small, so by using the ADAFRUIT stuff you don’t have to bother soldering SMDs to a PCB. (Link to ADAFRUIT). The chip is designed for 3.3V supply, on the Adafruit board you can find circuits to make this chip usable for 5V supply and 5V control lines. So it is compatible to standard 5V digital equipment.

adafruit_products_2045iso_orig

(Picture courtesy ADAFRUIT)

In contrast to the DDS chips I have been using before this one produces square waves. But especially for mixer purposes in a radio this can be an advantage because mixers generally are well controlled by square waves. And due to the mandatory post-mixer filtering circuitry harmonics are easily suppressed.

The Si5351 generator is intended to replace clock sources of all kinds, build PLL generators etc. It is fully programmable via I2C bus, in ATMega language called “TWI” (two wire interface).

My software does not use the Arduino code or other libraries, all TWI functions are written into the file to make understanding more easy without the neccessity to watch different files.

Basic guidelines for programming

Programming the Si5351 is a little bit more complicated than to set the frequency of the AD9xxxx DDS chips by Analog Devices that are well mentioned on my website. The programming of the PLL(s) and the synthesizer(s) is described in AN619 of SiLabs (Link). There are 2 steps to get the desired frequency out of the module.

Step 1: Set the PLL to a basic frequency (in my code to f=900 MHz)

Step 2: Divide this frequency using a “MultiSynth” divider to the desired output frequency using a set of equations given in AN619 and send this to one of the outputs (CLK0 to CLK2 with the Si5351A).

For handling step 1 you can see the function void si5351_start(void) in the code. Step 2 is done by the function void si5351_set_freq(int synth, unsigned long freq). Both functions look similar due to the fact that basic arithmetics do not differ very much. They got in common that you first have to calculate a set of integer values and subsequently write them into a larger number of registers of the Si5351. To understand this more easily I have written the register numbers into the code. It is highly recommended to watch the register table in AN619 to see the corresponding memory locations.

The software is very simple. You can generate one frequency that will be transferred to CLK0 output on the PCB. Watch the code:

/*****************************************************************/
/*             RF generator with Si5153 and ATMega8              */
/*  ************************************************************ */
/*  Mikrocontroller:  ATMEL AVR ATmega8, 8 MHz                   */
/*                                                               */
/*  Compiler:         GCC (GNU AVR C-Compiler)                   */
/*  Author:           Peter Rachow (DK7IH)                       */
/*  Last Change:      2017-FEB-23                                */
/*****************************************************************/
//Important:
//This is an absolute minimum software to generate a 10MHz signal with
//an ATMega8 and the SI5351 chip. Only one CLK0 and CLK1 are used 
//to supply rf to RX and TX module seperately. 

//I have tested this software with my RIGOL 100Mhz scope. Up to this
//frequency the Si5331 produced output.

//The software is more for educational purposes but can be modfied 
//to get more stuff out of the chip.
//
//73 de Peter (DK7IH)

#include <inttypes.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>

#include <avr/io.h>
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
#include <avr/sleep.h>
#include <avr/eeprom.h>
#include <util/delay.h>

/////////////////////
//Defines for Si5351
/////////////////////
#define SI5351_ADDRESS 0xC0 // 0b11000000 for my module. Others may vary! The 0x60 did NOT work with my module!

//Set of Si5351A register addresses
#define CLK_ENABLE_CONTROL       3
#define PLLX_SRC				15
#define CLK0_CONTROL            16 
#define CLK1_CONTROL            17
#define CLK2_CONTROL            18
#define SYNTH_PLL_A             26
#define SYNTH_PLL_B             34
#define SYNTH_MS_0              42
#define SYNTH_MS_1              50
#define SYNTH_MS_2              58
#define PLL_RESET              177
#define XTAL_LOAD_CAP          183

//The unavoidable functional stuff
int main(void);
void wait_ms(int);

//  TWI Declarations
void twi_init(void);
void twi_start(void);
void twi_stop(void);
void twi_write(uint8_t u8data);
uint8_t twi_get_status(void);

//  SI5351 Declarations
void si5351_write(int, int);
void si5351_start(void);
void si5351_set_freq(int, unsigned long);

/////////////////////
//
//   TWI-Functions
//
/////////////////////
void twi_init(void)
{
    //set SCL to 400kHz
    TWSR = 0x00;
    TWBR = 0x0C;
	
    //enable TWI
    TWCR = (1<<TWEN);
}

//Send start signal
void twi_start(void)
{
    TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWSTA)|(1<<TWEN);
    while ((TWCR & (1<<TWINT)) == 0);
}

//send stop signal
void twi_stop(void)
{
    TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWSTO)|(1<<TWEN);
}

void twi_write(uint8_t u8data)
{
	TWDR = u8data;
    TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWEN);
    while ((TWCR & (1<<TWINT)) == 0);
}

////////////////////////////////
//
// Si5351A commands
//
///////////////////////////////
void si5351_write(int reg_addr, int reg_value)
{
   twi_start();
   twi_write(SI5351_ADDRESS);
   twi_write(reg_addr);
   twi_write(reg_value);
   twi_stop();
} 

// Set PLLs (VCOs) to internal clock rate of 900 MHz 
// Equation fVCO = fXTAL * (a+b/c) (=> AN619 p. 3 
void si5351_start(void) 
{ 
  unsigned long a, b, c; 
  unsigned long p1, p2, p3; 
   
  // Init clock chip 
  si5351_write(XTAL_LOAD_CAP, 0xD2);      // Set crystal load capacitor to 10pF (default),  
                                          // for bits 5:0 see also AN619 p. 60 
  si5351_write(CLK_ENABLE_CONTROL, 0x00); // Enable all outputs 
  si5351_write(CLK0_CONTROL, 0x0F);       // Set PLLA to CLK0, 8 mA output 
  si5351_write(CLK1_CONTROL, 0x2F);       // Set PLLB to CLK1, 8 mA output 
  si5351_write(CLK2_CONTROL, 0x2F);       // Set PLLB to CLK2, 8 mA output 
  si5351_write(PLL_RESET, 0xA0);          // Reset PLLA and PLLB 
 
  // Set VCOs of PLLA and PLLB to 900 MHz 
  a = 36;           // Division factor 900/25 MHz 
  b = 0;            // Numerator, sets b/c=0 
  c = 1048757;      //Max. resolution, but irrelevant in this case (b=0) 
 
  //Formula for splitting up the numbers to register data, see AN619 
  p1 = 128 * a + (unsigned long) (128 * b / c) - 512; 
  p2 = 128 * b - c * (unsigned long) (128 * b / c); 
  p3  = c; 
 
  //Write data to registers PLLA and PLLB so that both VCOs are set to 900MHz intermal freq 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_A, 0xFF); 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_A + 1, 0xFF); 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_A + 2, (p1 & 0x00030000) >> 16); 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_A + 3, (p1 & 0x0000FF00) >> 8); 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_A + 4, (p1 & 0x000000FF)); 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_A + 5, 0xF0 | ((p2 & 0x000F0000) >> 16)); 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_A + 6, (p2 & 0x0000FF00) >> 8); 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_A + 7, (p2 & 0x000000FF)); 
 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_B, 0xFF); 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_B + 1, 0xFF); 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_B + 2, (p1 & 0x00030000) >> 16); 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_B + 3, (p1 & 0x0000FF00) >> 8); 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_B + 4, (p1 & 0x000000FF)); 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_B + 5, 0xF0 | ((p2 & 0x000F0000) >> 16)); 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_B + 6, (p2 & 0x0000FF00) >> 8); 
  si5351_write(SYNTH_PLL_B + 7, (p2 & 0x000000FF)); 
 
} 
 
void si5351_set_freq(int synth, unsigned long freq) 
{ 
   
  unsigned long  a, b, c = 1048575; 
  unsigned long f_xtal = 25000000; 
  double fdiv = (double) (f_xtal * 36) / freq; //division factor fvco/freq (will be integer part of a+b/c) 
  double rm; //remainder 
  unsigned long p1, p2, p3; 
   
  a = (unsigned long) fdiv; 
  rm = fdiv - a;  //(equiv. b/c) 
  b = rm * c; 
  p1  = 128 * a + (unsigned long) (128 * b / c) - 512; 
  p2 = 128 * b - c * (unsigned long) (128 * b / c); 
  p3 = c; 
   
  //Write data to multisynth registers of synth n 
  si5351_write(synth, 0xFF);      //1048757 MSB 
  si5351_write(synth + 1, 0xFF);  //1048757 LSB 
  si5351_write(synth + 2, (p1 & 0x00030000) >> 16); 
  si5351_write(synth + 3, (p1 & 0x0000FF00) >> 8); 
  si5351_write(synth + 4, (p1 & 0x000000FF)); 
  si5351_write(synth + 5, 0xF0 | ((p2 & 0x000F0000) >> 16)); 
  si5351_write(synth + 6, (p2 & 0x0000FF00) >> 8); 
  si5351_write(synth + 7, (p2 & 0x000000FF)); 
} 
/////////////////////////////////////////////
//              M  I  S  C  
/////////////////////////////////////////////
//Substitute defective _delay_ms() function in delay.h
void wait_ms(int ms)
{
    int t1, t2;
    int dtime = (int) 137 * 8;

    for(t1 = 0; t1 < ms; t1++)
    {
        for(t2 = 0; t2 < dtime; t2++)
        {
            asm volatile ("nop" ::);
        }
    }        
}

int main(void)
{
	unsigned long t1, freq = 10000000;
	PORTC = 0x30;//I²C-Bus lines: PC4=SDA, PC5=SCL 
				
	twi_init();
	wait_ms(100);
	si5351_start();
	wait_ms(100);
	
	si5351_set_freq(SYNTH_MS_0, freq);
    wait_ms(5000);
    
    for(;;)
    {
		//Increase frequency in steps of 1kHz 
	    for(t1 = 10000000; t1 < 10090000; t1+=1000)
	    {
			si5351_set_freq(SYNTH_MS_0, t1);
			wait_ms(1000);
		}	
	}	
    return 0;
}

I found lots of code for the Si5351 on the web, most of it much too long for my ideas. I reused some of the better parts and added some corrections and modification to fit my needs.

Some authors join the two functions (PLL definition and multisynth definitions) in the set_freq() function. I tried to avoid this because the code will be faster if you only set the PLLs once and afterwards just modify the frequency. Another idea that should be avoided is to switch off the PLLs during reprogramming the frequency. Unpleasant short-term absence of receiving signal is an outcome of the switch-off strategy. I leave the Pll running the whole time.

Thanks again for watching my amateur radio blog!

73 de Peter

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2 thoughts on “A simple software to control the Si5351A clock generator chip

  1. Changing only the mulitsynchs, and not the PLL forces you to use fractional divider values, which can generate a less clean output. As most people seem to be doing it this way, I am guessing that it’s not a problem.
    One issue is that your code (and other examples I’ve seen), don’t have anyway to exactly calibrate the output to compensate for the EXACT frequency that the crystal is operating on. In my case, I was quite a few KHZ off frequency until I made use of the ‘fudge factor’ calibration value provided by the Arduino library I was using. There are two versions of this library out there, the newer one takes the frequency as an integer value based on a resolution of .01 hz, IOW, you must multiply your desired integer frequency by 100 to input to the library. I see your code is based on 1 hz resolution. I guess your example only shows a ‘scan’ function, no input for use as a VFO.

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